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10.3.1 Tinning, Radial Lead Components, Manual

Outline
This procedure covers the manual tinning of radial lead components.

Caution: Due to the need to completely control the rates of immersion and emersion of the radial lead component leads and the dwell times in and between each process step, a robotic hot solder dip is recommended for radial lead component tinning. Semi-automatic or purely manual solder dipping processes may not be capable of completely controlling the rates of immersion and emersion of the radial lead component leads and only provide approximate dwell dipping times in the solder bath. Greater variation in the process may cause a higher chance of damage, including latent reliability problems.

Manual dipping required for full solder finish replacement is different than manual dipping currently practiced for meeting solderability requirements because the increased need for 100% coverage on the radial lead component leads to preventing whisker growth. Certain electronic component package styles may not lend themselves to robotic hot solder dipping and may require alternative processing.

Note: For robotic thinning refer to 10.3.2 Tinning, Radial Lead Components, Robotic.

Minimum Skill Level - Expert
Recommended for technicians with advanced soldering and component rework skills and extensive experience in most repair/rework procedures.

Conformance Level - Medium
This procedure may have some variance with the physical character of the original and most likely varies with some of the functional, environmental and serviceability factors.

Acceptability References
IPC-A-610 Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies
Procedure References
1.0 Foreword
2.1 Handling Electronic Assemblies
2.2 Cleaning
2.5 Baking and Preheating
10.1.1 Component Tinning Basics
IPC J-STD-033 Joint Industry Standard for Handling, Packing, Shipping and Use of Moisture/Reflow Sensitive Surface Mount Device
J-STD-001 Requirements for Soldered Electrical and Electronic Assemblies
J-STD-020 Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Classification for Nonhermetic Surface Mount Devices
Manufacturer's Datasheets Requirements for case temperature maximum and Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL)
Tools and Materials
Cleaninjg System
Cleaning System
Batch or inline cleaning system for removing fluxes and contamination.
Gloves
Gloves
Disposable, puncture-resistant gloves designed for handling mild chemicals.
Hot Plate
Hot Plate
Temperature adjustable heated plate to pre-heat components and circuit boards prior to tinning and reflow.
Microscope
Microscope
Precision microscope with stand and lighting for work and inspection.
Oven
Oven
General purpose oven for drying, baking and curing epoxies.
Safety Glasses
Safety Glasses
Protect your eyes and your vision with proper safety glasses.
Solder Flux
Solder Flux   Proprietary
Used to prepare solder surfaces and to prevent formation of oxides during soldering.
Solder Pot
Solder Pot
Solder pot with static or dynamic solder wave for wire and electronic component tinning.
Hot Plate
Tweezers
Multiple sizes and tip configurations of tweezers for various small parts handling needs.
Solder Pot
Vacuum Pickup Tool
Manual or powered vacuum pickup tool for handling small parts and electrinic components.
Wipes
Wipes
Nonabrasive, low-linting wipes for cleanup.
Images and Figures
10.3.1 Tinning, Radial Lead Components, Manual
Various Radial Lead Components
10.3.1 Tinning, Radial Lead Components, Manual
Figure 1. Solder pot.
10.3.1 Tinning, Radial Lead Components, Manual
Figure 2. Vacuum pickup tool.

10.3.1 Tinning, Radial Lead Components, Manual
Figure 3. A variety of tweezers may be needed depending on the component size.
10.3.1 Tinning, Radial Lead Components, Manual
Figure 4. Hot plate used to preheat the components to reduce thermal shock.
Procedure
  1. Ensure the radial lead components to be processed meet the requirements for acceptable Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL).
    Note: For information on baking and moisture level control, see 2.5 Baking and Preheating.
  2. Set up the Solder Pot with the proper process parameters, including solder temperature. (See Figure 1.)
    Note: Refer to the component datasheet for guidelines regarding component peak temperature specifications and other process parameters.
  3. Turn on the Solder Pot and allow the temperature to stabilize. Test the wave to ensure the solder is flowing smoothly if a flowing wave is used.
  4. Pick up a radial lead component using a vacuum pick-up tool or mechanical tweezer. (See Figures 2 and 3.)
  5. Dip or apply flux to the radial lead component leads.
  6. If needed, place the component on a hot plate. The heated plate will heat the radial lead component to activate the flux and evaporate volatiles. Pre-heating the radial lead component will also reduce the likelihood of temperature shock when placed in the liquidus solder. (See Figure 4.)
  7. Dip the leads of the radial lead component into the molten solder. Follow recommended timing for immersion and emersion to properly tin the entire length of each component lead.
    Caution: Due to the need to completely control the rates of immersion and emersion of the radial lead component leads and the dwell times in and between each process step, a robotic hot solder dip is recommended for electronic component tinning. See caution note above.
  8. If the flux used is water-soluble, run the components through a filtered hot water rinse to remove the flux residues. If the flux used is not water-soluble, use the appropriate flux remover solvent to clean the radial lead components.
  9. Complete the cleaning by washing the radial lead components in a cleaning system.
  10. Dry the radial lead components in a general-purpose oven.
  11. Visually inspect the radial lead components' appearance, cleanliness, and condition. Check the component lead terminations for acceptable solder coverage and inspect the body of the radial lead component for abnormalities.
  12. Before packaging for shipping, dry the radial lead components again in a general-purpose oven at a temperature, and for a time that meets the radial lead components stated Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL) requirement from the manufacturer's datasheet.
Evaluation
  1. Visual examination
  2. Tests or other inspection criteria as specified by customer drawings.
Procedure for reference only.